Message to INFODIO readers: investigative journalism, which is what this site does, takes lots of time. Visiting media looking for a quick run down on Venezuela's gargantuan corruption, have the decency to at least cite the source when plagiarising this site's content without attribution (exhibit Reuters here and here, exhibit Bloomberg here, exhibit OCCRP here). To all readers, do the right thing, the honest thing: support independent investigative journalism, help us expose rampant corruption. Note added 28/06/2021: impostors are using INFODIO's former editor's full name, and a fake email address (alek.boyd.arregui at to send copyright infringement claims / take down requests to web hosting companies (exhibit Hostgator). The attempt is yet another effort paid by corrupt thugs to erase information about their criminal activities. has no issues with other websites / journalists using / posting information published here, so long as the source is properly cited.

November 2023

Why is Nervis Villalobos threatening Portugal's judiciary?

RTP Noticias from Portugal posted an article yesterday that claims: "O venezuelano Nervis Villalobos, indicado como estando envolvido no caso de corrupção e branqueamento de capitais nas ligações do Grupo Espírito Santo (GES) à Venezuela, acusou a justiça portuguesa de "atitude persecutória" e ameaçou com um processo." [bold added] Translation: Nervis Villalobos, involved in corruption and

Venezuela: petrostate or narcostate?

Almost invariably news reports about Venezuela include some statement about oil. It has been claimed and repeated ad nauseam without much evidence that the country has the "world's largest crude reserves". Consequently, when the U.S. Treasury relaxed some of the sanctions in mid October, a cacophony of oil and finance experts threw caution to the wind, declaring that the worst had passed and production would be ramped up. This clearly ignores the fact that Venezuela is not Saudi Arabia.

Rafael Ramirez got €47 million bribe from Banco Espirito Santo through Canaima Finance Ltd

Canaima Finance Limited. That is, according to a criminal probe led in Portugal by prosecutor Olga Barata, the shell in which Rafael Ramirez got €47,831,557 from a slush fund to make bribe payments created by Ricardo Salgado (Banco Espirito Santo - BES). Luis Rosa from El Observador was given access to the prosecution files and has the full report.